Friday, August 30, 2019
Global Core and Periphery Essay
LO: to discuss the spatial pattern of global interactions through the mapping of core areas at the focus of interaction (network hubs/nodes), the peripheries and areas relatively unaffected by these interactions. Global economy Ã¢â¬â basic features * Single world market Ã¢â¬â producers to exchange rather than use. Price is determined on a global scale * 3 geographical tiers Ã¢â¬â core / semi-periphery / periphery * Temporal trends Ã¢â¬â growth then stagnation. Hegemony (indirect dominance of one country UK > USA > Japan > China?) * Integration or rejection Ã¢â¬â reaction of societies e.g. Islamic fundamentalism * States (political state, way its ruled) Ã¢â¬â states function to protect their interests, their companies and peoples interests from global economy * Alternative adaptations Ã¢â¬â how do nation states adapt to the global economy? Export led protectionism, isolationism etc. Core -North America, Western Europe and East Asia * High income countries * Main trade flows between these 3 areas * Countries in core have diversified economies, with high output, high purchasing power and large domestic markets * Outside this core, the global periphery is a location of cheap raw materials or cheap manufacturing or a market for the core to Ã¢â¬ËdumpÃ¢â¬â¢ their surplus products Semi Periphery * High and middle income countries * First waves of Newly Industrialised Countries (NICs) Ã¢â¬â South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore * Second wave of NICs or Recently Industrialised Countries (RICs) Ã¢â¬â e.g. Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa * BRICs (the four biggies) Ã¢â¬â Brazil, Russia, India, China * Resource exporting countries, RICs and NICs, former socialist countries, poorer European countries. * Some of these countries could now be seen as part of the CORE (South Korea) others are characterised by regional disparities and social polarisation (Brazil) others with very rapid economic growth (Slovakia, China) Periphery (excluded) * Lower middle income countries and low income countries * Mainly Africa * Small domestic markets, lack of infrastructure, population increase, low economic output, low levels of economic diversification, high agricultural population Global economy is dynamic For example, the spatial decentralisation (diffusion) of many economic activities. Until recently this was seen as the diffusion of manufacturing away from the Core to Semi Peripheral areas. Now we can observe diffusion in services and an increasing decentralisation of coordination and control operations.